Acidosis and Alkalosis

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Common causes of acid-bases disorders

Respiratory acidosis
Reduced carbon dioxide removal

Decreased breathing (due to drugs or to central nervous system disorders)
Slow breathing
Lung disease
Respiratory muscle/nerve disease (myasthaenia gravis, botulism, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, Guillain-Barre syndrome)

Respiratory alkalosis
Increased carbon dioxide removal

Fast breathing (due to anxiety, pain, shock)
Severe infection or fever
Liver failure
Pneumonia, pulmonary congestion or embolism

Metabolic acidosis
Decreased bicarbonate, due to loss or to increased acid

Alcoholic ketoacidosis
Diabetic ketoacidosis
Kidney failure
Lactic acidosis
Toxins – overdose of salicylates (aspirin), methanol, ethylene glycol, toluene
Gastrointestinal bicarbonate loss, such as from prolonged diarrhoea

Metabolic alkalosis
Increased bicarbonate, due to gain, or to loss of acid

Prolonged vomiting
Severe dehydration

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